Research Syllabus

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  • Vedas : Vedas are the foundations of Indian natural philosophy (old form of science). They are considered as apurusherya (No mentor or author) and classified as part of sruti ("heard") literature.

    Names of vedas : Vedas are categorized into four namely:

    1. Rigveda Samhita : Rigveda considered as the oldest veda with collection of 1,028 rigvedic suktas (hymns) and 10,600 mantras (verses) in all, organized into ten mandalas (section) composed by rishis from different groups in different centuries, especially in early Vedic period. The suktas are dedicated to rigvedic deities like Indra, Agni, Mitra, Varuna, Soma, Rudra and some time mentioned with double combination names, one of the greatest example is 'Gayatri mantra'. The nature of suktas shift from praise of deities to raising of questions about metaphysical issues, for example 'Nasadiya Sukta' raise questions like, "How is the origin of the universe?, do even gods know the answer?".

    2. Samaveda Samhita : Samaveda consisted of total of 1875 mantras (verses), which included some of the Rigvedic verses mainly 75 mantras. Excluding rigvedic repetitions, Samaveda Samhita consists of 1549 versus. Samaveda consisted of two major parts. The first part includes four gana (melody) and the second part with three arcika (verse “books”). Just as in the Rigveda, the early sections of Samaveda typically begin with suktas (hymns) to Agni and Indra but shift to the abstract. Their meters shift also in a descending order. The mantras (verses) in the later sections of the Samaveda have the least deviation from the suktas derived from the Rigveda.

    3. Yajurveda Samhita : Yajurveda consisted of total of 1875 mantras (verses), that includes Rigvedic mantras, but Unlike Samaveda, which is almost entirely based on Rigveda mantras, Yajurveda are in prose (Not Mantras) and Mantras. Yajurveda mainly consisted of rituals and formulas, proposed by ancient rishis (Consider as scientist or visionary) like yajna (ritual performed before fire). Yajurveda is considered as primary source of information about sacrifices during Vedic times and associated rituals. There are two major parts for Yajurveda namely Krishna Yajurveda (Black) and Shukla Yajurveda(White). Krishna Yajurveda implies the un-arranged collection of verses and Shukla Yajurveda implies well arranged collection of verses. The Shukla Yajurveda separates Samhita from its Brahmana (Satapatha Brahmana) and Krishna Yajurveda intersperses Samhita with Brahmana commentary. From Krishna Yajurveda four major schools survived namely Maitrayani, Katha, Kapisthala-Katha, Taittiriya and from Shukla Yajurved two major schools survived namely Kanva and Madhyandina. The youngest layer of Yajurveda is not related to rituals or sacrifice, it consisted with the largest collection of Upanishads, currently known as Mukya (primary) Upanishads, which influenced various schools of Indian philosophy especially Advaita siddhanta.

    4. Atharvaveda Samhita : Atharvaveda consisted of total 760 suktas (hymns), and about 160 suktas are in common with Rigveda. This text was not considered as Veda in the Vedic era and was accepted as a Veda in late 1st millennium BC. The creation last probably around 900 BC, although some of its material may go back to the time of the Rigveda, or earlier. Atharvaveda considered as text belonging to the Atharvan and Angiras, some scholars titled Atharvaveda as an "Veda of magical formulas", but some proposed this as an incorrect title. Atharvaveda constituted with two different versions namely Paippalada and Sanukiya, most part are in metrical (Mantras) and some in prose (Not Mantras). Atharvaveda is considered as oldest surviving record on evolutionary practices of cultural medicines that reveals, earliest forms of folk healing like mantra chanting to cure diseases caused by dur-devadas (demons) or herbs as nature-derived potions of medicine. It is considered as primary source for information about Vedic culture, customs, beliefs, marriage, cremation and also those associated with kings and governance. Many mandalas of the Atharvaveda dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations, theosophy and also dedicates significant portion asking meanings of rituals.

    Section of vedas : Each vedas are sectioned into four:

    1. Samhita : Samhita are the combination of suktas (hymns) and mantras (verses) which implies the earliest part of the Vedas. These contain mantras with or without literal meaning, as well as explanations, prayers, questions and blessings connection with nature or Vedic deities. Vedic Samhita refer to mathematically precise metrical archaic text of each of the Vedas. Samhita is a Sanskrit word from sam (roots) and hita (proper). The combination word thus means "put together’ or ‘joined’. The Vedic Samhitas were chanted during ceremonies and rituals, and parts of it remain the oldest living part of Indian traditions. A collective study of Vedas and later text suggests that the compendium of Samhitas and associated Vedic texts were far larger than currently available. However, most have been lost at some point or over a period of Indian history.

    2. Brahmanas : The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation, proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhitas. They also incorporate a puranas (traditional story), itihasa (legendary stories) and philosophy. Each regional Vedic shakha (school) has its own Brahmana, as operating manual, most of which have been lost but total of 19 Brahmana texts survived into modern times. two associated with Rigveda, six with Yajurveda, ten with Samaveda and one with the Atharvaveda. It is considered as the oldest Brahmanas constituted about 900 BC, while the youngest Brahmanas such as Satapatha Brahmana were complete by about 700 BC, that are before Buddhist times (ca. 600 BC). The substance of the Brahmana text varies with each Veda. For example, the first chapter of the Chandogya Brahmana, one of the oldest Brahmanas, includes eight ritual suktas (hymns) for the ceremony of marriage and rituals at the birth of a child. The first hymn is a recitation that accompanies offering a Yajna oblation to Agni (fire) on the occasion of a marriage, and the sukta prays for prosperity of the couple getting married. The second sukta wishes for their long life, kind relatives and for good childrens. The third sukta is a mutual marriage pledge, between the bride and groom, by which the two bind themselves to each other. The sixth through last hymns of the first chapter in Chandogya Brahmana are ritual celebrations on the birth of a child and wishes for health, wealth, and prosperity. However, these verses are incomplete expositions, and their complete context emerges only with the Samhita layer of text.

    3. Aranyakas : Aranyakas section of the Vedas include rituals, discussion of symbolic meta-rituals, as well as philosophical speculations. They are neither homogeneous nor structured, but as combinations of instructions and ideas. Some Aranyakas include chapters of Upanishads within them. Two theories proposed on the origin word Aranyakas. One theory holds that these texts were meant to studied in a forest, while another holds that these being the manuals of allegorical interpretation of sacrifices for those in Vanaprastha (retired, forest-dwelling).

    4. Upanishads : The Upanishads reflect the last composed layer of texts in the Vedas. They are commonly referred as Vedanta, interpreted to mean either the "last chapters, parts of the Vedas" or "the object, the highest purpose of the Veda". The concepts of Brahman (Ultimate Reality) and Atman (Soul, Self) are central ideas in all the Upanishads. The Upanishads are considered as the foundation of Indian philosophical thoughts and traditions. Of the Vedic corpus, Upanishads alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads have influenced the diverse of modern traditions especial for advaita vedanta.

    Vedanga : vedanga are considered to be the limbs of the Veda. They are six disciplines in Vedic culture that developed in ancient times connected with the study of the Vedas namely:

    1. Shiksha : This discipline focussed on the letters of the Sanskrit alphabet, accent, quantity, stress, melody, phonetics, pronunciation and rules about combination of words during Vedic recitation.

    2. Chandas : This discipline focussed on the poetic meters, including those based on fixed number of syllables per verse, and fixed number of morae per verse.

    3. Vyakarana : This discipline focussed on the rules of grammar and linguistic analysis to establish the exact form of words and sentences to properly express ideas.

    4. Nirukta : This discipline focussed on explanation of words (Like dictionary, but not exactly), particularly those have ancient usages with relative meanings in consideration with context they are used.

    5. Kalpa : This discipline focussed on ritual instructions and procedures for rituals associated with major life events like birth, time for start study (upanayana), marriage, death, as well as discussing personal conduct and duties as an individual in different stages of life.

    6. Jyotisha : This discipline focussed on auspicious time for rituals and timekeeping, in connection with astrology (part of astronomy).

    Parisista : Parisita may considered as supplementary appendix on vedic literature, which mainly dealing with rituals and elaborations on each vedic section. They are structured for understanding each vedic context more deeply and logically. Parisista exist for all four Vedas, naturally classified for each Veda sections but, literature associated with Atharvaveda is extensive.

    • Asvalayana Gṛhya Parisista is a very late text associated with the Rigveda.

    • Gobhila Grhya Parisista is a short metrical text of two chapters, with 113 and 95 versus respectively.

    • Katiya Parisista, ascribed to Katyayana, consist of 18 works enumerated self-referentially in the fifth of the series (Caraṇavyuha) and the Katyayana Srauta Sutra Parisista.

    • The Krishna Yajurveda has 3 parisistas The Āpastamba Haustra Parisista, which is also found as the second praharana of the Satyasaḍha Srauta Sutra, the Varaha Srauta Sutra Parisista.

    • For Atharvaveda, there are 79 works, collected as 72 distinctly named parisistas.

  • Upaveda : upavedas may considered as applied form of vedic knowledge, which were used in traditional literature to designate subjects of certain technical works. Lists of what subjects are included in this class differ among sources. Four Upavedas mentions in Charana Vyuha are namely:

    • Dhanurveda (Archery), associated with the Rigveda.

    • Sthapatyaveda (Architecture), associated with the Yajurveda.

    • Gandharvaveda (Music and dance), associated with the Samaveda.

    • Ayurveda (Medicine), associated with the Atharvaveda.

  • Upanishads : The Upanishads are part of the Vedas. More than 200 Upanishads are known, of which the first dozen or so are the oldest and most important and are referred to as Pradama (principal or first) Upanishads. Pradama Upanishads are found mostly in concluding part of Brahmanas and Aranyakas and were, for centuries, memorized by each generation and passed down orally. Early Upanishads all predate the common era, five of them in all likelihood pre-Buddhist (6th century BCE), down to the Maurya period. Of the remainder, 95 Upanishads are part of the Muktika canon, composed from about the last centuries of 1st-millennium BCE through about 15th-century CE. New Upanishads, beyond the 108 in the Muktika canon, continued to be composed through the early modern and modern era, though often dealing with subjects which are unconnected to the Vedas.

    Pradama Upanishads (Principal Upanishads)

    1. Aitareya Upanishad (Rigveda)

    2. Kausitaki Upanishad (Rigveda) May excluded

    3. Chandogya Upanishad (Samaveda)

    4. Kena Upanishad (Samaveda)

    5. Taittiriya Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    6. Katha Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    7. Svetasvatara Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    8. Maitrayani Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    9. Brhadaranyaka Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    10. Isavasy Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    11. Mundaka Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    12. Mandukya Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    13. Prasna Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    Samanya Upanishads
    1. Atmabodha Upanishad (Rigveda)

    2. Mudgala Upanishad (Rigveda)

    3. Vajrasuchi Upanishad (Samaveda)

    4. Maha Upanishad (Samaveda)

    5. Savitri Upanishad (Samaveda)

    6. Sarvasara Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    7. Sukarahasya Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    8. Skanda Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    9. Garbha Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    10. Sariraka Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    11. Ekaksara Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    12. Aksi Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    13. Subala Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    14. Mantrika Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    15. Niralamba Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    16. Paingala Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    17. Adhyatma Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    18. Muktika Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    19. Atma Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    20. Surya Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    21. Pranagnihotra Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    Sannyasa Upanishads
    1. Nirvana Upanishad (Rigveda)

    2. Aruni Upanishad (Samaveda)

    3. Maitreya Upanishad (Samaveda)

    4. Brhat-Sannyasa Upanishad (Samaveda)

    5. Kundika (Laghu-Sannyasa) Upanishad (Samaveda)

    6. Brahma (Laghu, Brhad) Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    7. Avadhuta Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    8. Kathasruti Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    9. Jabala Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    10. Paramahamsa Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    11. Bhiksuka Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    12. Turiyatitavadhuta Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    13. Yajnavalkya Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    14. Satyayaniya Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    15. Asrama Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    16. Narada-parivrajaka Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    17. Paramahamsa parivrajaka Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    18. Parabrahma Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    Sakta Upanishads
    1. Tripura Upanishad (Rigveda)

    2. Saubhagya-lakshmi Upanishad (Rigveda)

    3. Bahvrca Upanishad (Rigveda)

    4. Sarasvati-rahasya Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    5. Sita Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    6. Devi Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    7. Tripuratapini Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    8. Bhavana Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    Vaisnava Upanishads
    1. Vasudeva Upanishad (Samaveda)

    2. Avyakta Upanishad (Samaveda)

    3. Narayana Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    4. Kali-Santarana Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    5. Tarasara Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    6. Nrsimhatapani Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    7. Mahanarayana (Tripad vibhuti) Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    8. Ramarahasya Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    9. Ramatapani Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    10. Gopalatapani Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    11. Krsna Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    12. Hayagriva Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    13. Dattatreya Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    14. Garuda Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    Saiva Upanishads
    1. Aksamalika Upanishad (Rigveda)

    2. Rudraksa Upanishad (Samaveda)

    3. Jabali Upanishad (Samaveda)

    4. Kaivalya Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    5. Kalagnirudra Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    6. Daksinamurti Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    7. Rudrahrdaya Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    8. Pancabrahma Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    9. Atharvasiras Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    10. AtharvaSikha Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    11. Brhajjabala Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    12. Sarabha Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    13. Bhasma Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    14. Ganapati Upanishad (Atharvaveda)

    Yoga Upanishads
    1. Nadabindu Upanishad (Rigveda)

    2. Yogachudamani Upanishad (Samaveda)

    3. DarSana Upanishad (Samaveda)

    4. Amrtabindu Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    5. Tejobindu Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    6. Amrtanada Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    7. Ksurika Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    8. Dhyanabindu Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    9. Brahmavidya Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    10. Yogatattva Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    11. YogaSikha Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    12. Yogakundalini Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    13. Varaha Upanishad (Krishna Yajurveda)

    14. Advayataraka Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    15. Hamsa Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    16. Trisikhi Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    17. Mandalabrahmana Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    18. Sandilya Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    19. PaSupata Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

    20. Mahavakya Upanishad (Shukla Yajurveda)

  • Vedic Deities : Vedic deities may consider as representation of nature itself. There are 1000 suktas (hymns) in the Rigveda, most of them dedicated to specific deities. Some dedications are to paired deities, and counted doubly, for example Vishva Devas (all gods together) have been invoked 70 times. Some derites have major dedicated suktas and some have minor.

    Major Vedic Deities

    • Indra (King of Svarga (Heaven) and Devas (Deities), Rig. Repeats - 289)

    • Agni (Sacrificial fire and messenger of devas, Rig. Repeats - 218)

    • Soma (Vedic sacred drink, mostly mentioned in Soma Mandala, Rig. Repeats - 123)

    • Asvins (Twin devas, horsemen of surya deva, davs of medicine, Rig. Repeats - 56)

    • Varuna (Deity associated with sky, waters, Rta (justice) and Satya (truth), Rig. Repeats - 46)

    • Maruts (Storm deities and sons of Rudra and Prisni and attendants of Indra, Rig. Repeats - 38)

    • Mitra (Function changed with time, divinity of friendship, Rig. Repeats - 28)

    • Ushas (Devata of dawn, light, Rig. Repeats - 21)

    • Vayu (Deity associated with wind and Prana (Breath), Rig. Repeats - 12)

    • Savitr (Associated with adithya (Sun), connection with Gayatri mantra, Rig. Repeats - 11)

    • Rbhus (Deity connected with time, Rig. Repeats - 11)

    • Pushan (solar deity and one of the Adityas, Repeats - 10)

    • Apris (12 Apris propitiating twelve deities, Rig. Repeats - 9)

    • Brhaspati (Vedic era sage, Rig. Repeats - 8)

    • Surya (Solar deity, Sun, Rig. Repeats - 8)

    • Dyaus (Father Heaven, Rig. Repeats - 6)

    • Prithivi (Mother earth, Rig. Repeats - 6)

    • Apas (Waters, Rig. Repeats - 6)

    • Adityas (7 Adityas, along with Martanda, Rig. Repeats - 6)

    • Vishnu (Preserver, Principal deities, Rig. Repeats - 6)

    • Brahmanaspati (Brhaspati, Rig. Repeats - 6)

    • Rudra (Mightiest of the mighty, complete shut down, Rig. Repeats - 5)

    • Dadhikras (Divine horse, bird, personification of morning Sun, Rig. Repeats - 4)

    • Sarasvati (Sarasvati River, Rig. Repeats - 3)

    • Yama (Deity of death, Rig. Repeats - 3)

    • Parjanya (Rain, Rig. Repeats - 3)

    • Vac (Voice, speak, Rig. Repeats - 130,2)

    • Vastospati (Dirty associated with vastu (house), Rig. Repeats - 2)

    • Vishvakarman (Maker of all, Rig. Repeats - 2)

    • Manyu (Self-existence, Dirty associated with Manyu Sukta, Rig. Repeats - 2)

    • Kapinjala (Form of Indra, Rig. Repeats - 2)

    Minor Deities (one single or no dedicated suktas)

    • Manas (Thought, concept)

    • Dakshina (Reward for priests and poets)

    • Purusha ("Cosmic Man" of the Purusha sukta)

    • Aditi (Mother of the devas (devamata)

    • Bhaga (Wealth, Prosperity)

    • Vasukra (Rishi, Son of Vasishtha)

    • Atri (Vedic sage)

    • Apam Napat (Angel of Rain)

    • Ksetrapati (Lord of the soil)

    • Ghrta (Products from cow, products for yajna)

    • Nirrti (Sindhu goddess)

    • Asamati (Spring of gifts)

    • Urvasi (She who can control heart of others)

    • Pururavas (First king of Somavamsha(Aila dynasty))

    • Vena (Great kingwho became evil and corrupt)

    • Aranyani (Devata (Goddess) of forests and animals)

    • Mayabheda (Removal of Avidya (ignorance))

    • Tarksya (Mythical being in Rigveda, described as horse)

    • Tvastar (Purusha Sukta refers to Purusha as Tvastr)

    • Saranyu (Wife of Surya and goddess of clouds)

  • Suktas and Stutis : Each Veda samhita are the combination of suktas (hymns) and Stutis (Prayers) which implies the earliest part of the Vedas.The suktas and Stutis are considered as part of sruti ("heard") in vedic literature which used for performing rituals in connection with vedic deities.


    • Vishwakarma Suktam

    • Devi Suktam

    • Aksha Kitana Ninda Suktam

    • Hiranyagarbha Suktam

    • Manyu Suktam

    • Medha Suktam

    • Nadistuti Suktam

    • Narayana Suktam

    • Nasadiya Suktam

    • Prithvi Suktam

    • Purusa Suktam

    • Sri Suktam

    • Aghamarshana Suktam

    • Agni Suktam

    • Ayushya Suktam

    • Balitha Suktam

    • Bhagya Suktam

    • Bhu Suktam

    • Durga Suktam

    • Durva Suktam

    • Ganesha Suktam

    • Mrittika Suktam

    • Nakshatra Suktam

    • Nasadiya Suktam

    • Navagraha Suktam

    • Nila Suktam

    • Parjanya Suktam

    • Pavamana Suktam

    • Ratri Suktam

    • Roga Nivarana Suktam

    • Rudra Suktam

    • Sannyasa Suktam

    • Sarasvati Suktam

    • Saura Suktam

    • Shanna Suktam

    • Visnu Suktam


    • Vishnu stuti

    • Vayu stuti

    • Lakshmi stuti

    • Krishna stuti

    • Dashavatara stuti

    • Shiva stuti

    • Nakha stuti

    • Durga stuti

    • Nrusimha stuti

    • Srinivasa stuti

    • Sahasrara stuti

    • Ramesha stuti

    • Vyasa stuti

    • Shri Rudram Chamakam

  • Shastras : Word shastra means rules, manual, instructions, treatise or collection of ideas, used as suffix in Indian literature context for technical or specialized scientific knowledge in a defined area of practice. The usage of word Shastra continuous also in modern era, like bhautik shastra (physics), jīvashastra (biology). There are also sastras for special categories like rasayana shastra a part of ayurveda. Some of the ancient sastras are namely:

    1. Vastushastra

    2. Shilpa shastra

    3. Arthashastra

    4. Nitishastra.

    5. Yoga Shastra

    6. Nyaya Shastra

    7. Dharma Shastra

    8. Kama Shastra

    9. Moksha Shastra

    10. Artha Shastra

    11. Alamkara Shastra

    12. Kavya Shastra

    13. Sangita Shastra

    14. Natya Shastra

  • Sutra : The word sutra means "string" or "thread", that refers manual or text on specialised technical areas of Indian literature. Sutras are considered as gems of Indian literature. They denotes distinct type of literary composition of short direction or statements. Each sutra may considered as short rule, like a theorem distilled with few words in modern science. Sutras are threads around which teachings of ritual, philosophy, grammar, or any field of knowledge may woven (suna). The oldest sutras of Indian literature are found in Brahmanas and Aranyakas of Veda. Every school of Indian philosophy and various fields of arts, law, and social ethics have their own respective sutras, which help to educate and transmit ideas.

    Vedic sutras (Sutras derived from Brahmanas and Aranyakas)

    1. Asvalayana Sutra (Rigveda)

    2. Samkhya Sutra (Rigveda)

    3. Saunaka Sutra (Rigveda)

    4. Latyayana Sutra (Samaveda)

    5. Drahyayana Sutra (Samaveda)

    6. Nidana Sutra (Samaveda)

    7. Pushpa Sutra (Samaveda)

    8. Anustotra Sutra (Samaveda)

    9. Manava Sutra (Yajurveda)

    10. Bharadvaja Sutra (Yajurveda)

    11. Vadhuna Sutra (Yajurveda)

    12. Vaikhanasa Sutra (Yajurveda)

    13. Laugakshi Sutra (Yajurveda)

    14. Maitra Sutra (Yajurveda)

    15. Katha Sutra (Yajurveda)

    16. Varaha Sutra (Yajurveda)

    17. Kausika Sutra (Atharvaveda)


    1. Anupada Sutras

    2. Nidana Sutras

    3. Kalpa Sutras

    4. Smarta Sutras

    5. Srauta Sutras

    6. Dharma Sutras

    7. Grhya Sutras

    8. Sulba Sutras

    Post vedic sutras : (Schools of Philosophy)

    1. Brahma Sutra (Vedanta Sutra)

    2. Yoga Sutras

    3. Samkhya Sutra

    4. Vaisheshika Sutra

    5. Nyaya Sutras

    6. Mimamsa Sutras

    7. Dharma sutras

    8. Artha sutras

    9. Kama sutras

    10. Moksha sutras

    11. Shiva sutras

    12. Narada Bhakti Sutra

  • Puranas : The word Purana literally means "ancient” or “old’ and covers wide range of topics particularly myths, legends and other traditions. There are 2 Itihasa puranas, 18 Mahapuranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa-puranas (Minor Puranas) with over 400,000 verses. Vyasa (Consider as someone who writes) hagiographically credited as the compiler of the Puranas. The Puranas are not considered as an authentic scripture in Indian culture, but may consider as collective stories or explanation to express wide range of knowledges from vedas as Smriti("to be remembered").

    • Itihasa purana : Itihasa purana are considered as those puranas mentioning legendary stories of dynasties, with much more detail and explanations. There are two Itihasa Puranas namely:

      1. Ramayana : Ramayana deals with legendary story of Solar dynasty (Sri. Rama and others) contains nearly 24,000 verses (shloka), divided into 7 Kandas (books) and about 500 sargas (chapters). 7 kandas of ramayana are namely:

        1. Bala Kanda.

        2. Ayodhya Kanda.

        3. Aranya Kanda.

        4. Kishkindha Kanda.

        5. Sundara Kanda.

        6. Yuddha Kanda.

        7. Uttara Kanda.

      2. Mahabharata: Legendary story of Lunar dynasty (Kaurava and Panava) According to the Mahabharata itself, the tale is extended from a shorter version of 24,000 verses called simply Bhārata to Mahabharata as the longest epic poem known and described as "the longest poem ever written". Its longest version consists of over 100,000 verses (shloka) or over 200,000 individual verse lines (each shloka may doubled) with about 1.8 million words in total.

        1. Adi Parva (Beginning, 1–19 Upa parvas)

        2. Sabha Parva (Assembly Hall, 20–28 Upa parvas)

        3. Vana Parva (Forest, 29–44 Upa parvas)

        4. Virata Parva (Virata, 45–48 Upa parvas)

        5. Udyoga Parva (Effort, 49–59 Upa parvas)

        6. Bhishma Parva (Bhishma, 60–64 Upa parvas)

        7. Drona Parva (Drona, 65–72 Upa parvas)

        8. Karna Parva (Karna, 73 Upa parvas)

        9. Shalya Parva (Shalya, 74–77 Upa parvas)

        10. Sauptika Parva (Sleeping Warriors, 78–80 Upa parvas)

        11. Stri Parva (Women, 81–85 Upa parvas)

        12. Shanti Parva (Peace, 86–88 Upa parvas)

        13. Anushasana Parva (Instructions, 89–90 Upa parvas)

        14. Ashvamedhika Parva (Horse Sacrifice, 91–92 Upa parvas)

        15. Ashramavasika Parva (Hermitage, 93–95 Upa parvas)

        16. Mausala Parva (Clubs, 96 Upa parvas)

        17. Mahaprasthanika Parva (Journey, 97 Upa parvas)

        18. Svargarohana Parva (Heaven, 98 Upa parvas)

        19. Harivamsa Parva (appendix or supplement, Hari, 99–100 Upa parvas)

    • Mahapuranas: Mahapuranas are considered as major puranas of Indian traditions. There are 18 mahapuranas and each mahapuran divided into three groups of six, though they are not always counted in such way. The 18 mahapuranas are namely:

      1. Agni Purana (15,400 verses)

      2. Bhagavata Purana (18,000 verses)

      3. Brahma Purana (10,000 verses)

      4. Brahmanda Purana (112,000 verses)

      5. Brahma Vaivarta Purana (17,000 verses)

      6. Garuda Purana (19,000 verses)

      7. Kurma Purana (17,000 verses)

      8. Linga Purana (11,000 verses)

      9. Markandeya Purana (9,000 verses)

      10. Matsya Purana (14,000 verses)

      11. Narada Purana (25,000 verses)

      12. Padma Purana (55,000 verses)

      13. Shiva Purana (24,000 verses)

      14. Skanda Purana (81,100 verses)

      15. Vamana Purana (10,000 verses)

      16. Varaha Purana (24,000 verses)

      17. Vayu Purana (24,000 verses)

      18. Vishnu Purana (23,000 verses)

    • Upa Puranas : Upa Puranas are considered as minor puranas of Indian tradition, though some of these compositions originated earlier than Mahapuranas. Their compilations differentiated from Mahapuranas by styles, so they disparaged with prefix Upa (secondary). Calmes and names of 18 upapuranas were mentioned in different purans like Kurma Purana, Garuda Purana, Brihad Dharma Purana, Devi Bhagavata, Ekamra Purana, but each of them give different name list and order likely:

      Kurma Purana list

      1. Adya Purana (Sanatkumara)

      2. Narasimha Purana

      3. Skanda Purana

      4. Shiva Dharma Purana

      5. Durvasa Purana

      6. Naradiya Purana

      7. Kapila Purana

      8. Vamana Purana

      9. Aushanasa Purana

      10. Brahmanda Purana

      11. Varuna Purana

      12. Kalika Purana

      13. Maheshvara Purana

      14. Samba Purana

      15. Saura Purana

      16. Parashara Purana

      17. Maricha Purana

      18. Bhargava Purana

      Brihad Dharma Purana list

      1. Adi Purana

      2. Aditya Purana

      3. Brihannaradiya Purana

      4. Naradiya Purana

      5. Nandishwara Purana

      6. Brihannandishavara Purana

      7. Samba Purana

      8. Kriyayogasara

      9. Kalika Purana

      10. Dharma Purana

      11. Vishnudharmottara Purana

      12. Shiva Dharma Purana

      13. Vishnu Dharma Purana

      14. Vamana Purana

      15. Varuna Purana

      16. Narasimha Purana

      17. Bhargava Purana

      18. Brihad Dharma Purana

  • Prasthana Trayi : Prasthana Trayi literally, three sources (or axioms) refers to the three canonical texts of modern Indian philosophy, especially of the Vedanta schools. It consists of:

    1. Upanishads (Upadesha prasthana)

    2. Brahma Sutras (Nyaya prasthana)

    3. Bhagavad Gita (Sadhana prasthana)

  • Philosophical school : Philosophical school refers to group of darshanas (philosophies, views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India. The main stream ancient Indian philosophy includes six systems (saddarsana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa and Vedanta.

    Astika (Premise atman exists)

    1. Samkhya (Atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter)

    2. Yoga (Emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation)

    3. Nyaya (Explores sources of knowledge, Nyaya Sutra)

    4. Vaisesika (Empiricist school of matter and void)

    5. Mimamsa (Anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy)

    6. Vedanta (Emphasising knowledge in the Vedas)

    Nastika (Not accept the authority of the Vedas)

    1. Carvaka (Accepted existence of free will)

    2. Ajivika (Materialism, Denied existence of free will)

    3. Buddhism (Denies existence of atman)

    4. Jainism (Accepts existence of the atman)


    1. Pashupata Shaivism (By Nakulisa)

    2. Shaiva Siddhanta (Sankhya school)

    3. Pratyabhijna (By Kashmir Shaivism)

    4. Rasesvara (Shaiva school)

    5. Ramanujam (By Ramanuja)

    6. Purnaprajaa (By Madhvacarya)

    7. Paninīya (By Paninī)

  • Associated Legends : The persons who contributed their works for Indian cultural reformations or tradition or as part of literature may considered as associated legends. Some of them are namely:

    1. Adi. Sankara (Doctrine of Advaita Vedanta know more)

    2. Panini (Ancient Sanskrit linguist and grammarian)

    3. Charaka (Father of medicine, consolidated charakasmitha)

    4. Sushruta (Father of surgery, compiled Sushrutasamitha)

    5. Patanjali (Rishi who developed Yoga)

    6. Chanakya (Minister of Chandragupta Maurya, Composed Arthashastra)

    7. More will be added.

  • Associated Arts : (Will be added in Future)

  • Associated Monuments : (Will be added in Future)

  • Associated Festivals : (Will be added in Future)

  • Associated Languages : (Will be added in Future)

Please note : The syllabus is still under preparations, You may also help us by advocating or correcting informations mentioned here considering this syllabus as the base of our research.

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